— -The carnage and tragic loss in the Civil War that shattered the optimism and idealism found in Romanticism.
— -Growth of industry and immigration in urban areas
— -Focuses on the ethical struggles and social issues of ordinary people
— -Challenges social institutions, conventions and hierarchies
— -Rejects the optimism about human nature and intentions characteristic of Romantics
— -Often uses irony or satire to criticize social institutions and injustices (ironists)
· Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)